Composite Pressure Vessels: Analysis, Design, and Manufacturing
Composite pressure vessels reinforced with high-strength glass, carbon, or organic fibers can have much higher weight efficiency than achievable with traditional metals. For decades, composite vessels have been used in the aerospace industry where structural weight efficiency is of paramount importance. Sophisticated design, analysis, and manufacturing methods have been developed to achieve this efficiency, and reasonable risk, which always accompanies the application of aerospace structures with high weight efficiency, has been acceptable and taken into account. Today, composite pressure vessels are on the way to widespread commercial applications as automotive fuel tanks for compressed gas, cryogenic tanks for transportation of liquified natural gas, structural elements of survival and emergency systems for which risk natural for aerospace systems is not acceptable. Worldwide programs of energy consumption and reduction of the dependence on petroleum are giving rise to a rapidly growing market for light-weight composite pressure vessels. To meet the market demands, numerous companies are being set up throughout the world to develop composite pressure vessels. This book is addressed mainly to those who work for such companies. The design and manufacture of metal vessels is governed by well-established methods and procedures, and their safety is ensured by design guides, codes, and standards developed from long-term experience. In contrast, composite pressure vessels are products of high technology that is not completely developed for commercial applications. The current level of this technology is reflected in this book, and composite pressure vessels can be made to be safe if their analysis, design, and manufacture correspond to this level. Otherwise, they can be too dangerous for commercial applications.